You have 4 different types of clubs in your golf bag; woods, irons, wedges, and a putter. The greater the number next to their identifying letter the greater the incline of their path and consequently the shorter the distance traveled.
Your woods will drive the farthest, with the driver being the most powerful of these. Of course all of that force can only be aim accurately on a tee and thus in only useful on the first hit of the hole. From there you have your 3w and 5w. Your 3w will be the go to club when on the fairway as it is the second most powerful club while still being fairly accurate.
From there we go to your irons, from3i to 9i with 3i being the go to club on the rough and sometimes the bunker. Typically the other irons would only be used if you had less distance than the 3i hits to the hole or if you needed more height on your shot.
After that are your wedges which are useful for chipping in and for getting out of steep bunkers. These will be the shortest ranged clubs but will have the most accuracy.
The putter is only useful on the green or right at the edge of the green. It does not hit the ball through the air so when using it you need to take the shape of the land into account.