Yes, there are a variety of different ways to improve your golf game through items.
Food will give you a temporary boost during the course or it can restore stamina and mentality.
Some clothing will include slots to sewn in patches patches that improve player stats. Clubs will improve your swing power, how big the sweet spot is, how forgiving the swing bar is and how fast it moves. These will provide you a bonus for as long as you have them equipped.
Other items will have a specific amount of times you can use them such as rings, golf balls, and ball markers which will help you out until they run out of durability.